The Graph Glossary.

This glossary provides easy-to-understand definitions and explanations of the main terms used in The Graph network.



Arbitrators resolve disputes and determine if an Indexer is acting maliciously.

Bonding Curve

A bonding curve describes the relationship between the price and supply of an asset. It is a mathematical concept modelling the idea that the price of an asset (with a limited quantity) increases slightly for subsequent buyers with each purchase.

Bonding Curve Contracts

Token issuance smart contracts enabling users to buy tokens outside of exchanges. The contract calculates the asset price in Ether and sells the tokens to buyers while at the same time buying the tokens and paying for them with Ether.

Conditional Micropayments

To enable scalable, off-chain, trust-minimized payments, the technology of payment channels is utilized. The payment process involves the two parties using an escrow to lock funds on-chain. These funds are then used to exchange funds off-chain until a transaction is submitted on-chain.

Cryptoeconomic Primitives

Cryptoeconomic Primitives are token-based incentive systems. They are enabled by economic and cryptographic mechanisms and allow the coordination of labor and the allocation of capital to reach shared goals.

Curation Market

A curation market is a model allowing actors in a network to effectively coordinate around shared goals and earn from the value they co-create.

Curation Shares

Curators in The Graph Network can mint curation shares that are issued by The Graph’s bonding curve.


Curators identify attractive subgraphs and signal on them to help Indexers identify high-quality subgraphs.

Data Consumer

End users that query data from the blockchain via The Graph. End users can include dApps (for example Uniswap, Bancor and Aave) but also web services, developers or middleware.

Delegation Unbonding Period

Delegations are subject to a 28 day thawing period once undelegated from an Indexer. During this time period, Delegators are not able to move tokens or earn delegation rewards with them.


Delegators participate in the network by delegating (i.e., “staking”) GRT tokens to one or multiple Indexers

Effective Reward Cut

Effective cut that the indexers takes exclusively from the rewards generated by the delegators stake


Fishermen validate very responses and are thereby responsible for securing the network.

Graph Name Service (GNS)

The Graph Name Service (GNS) is an on-chain registry of subgraphs that is indexed by The Graph Explorer. The GNS allows subgraph developers to define a name for a subgraph and to attach it to it. The name can then be used to point to consecutive “versions” of a subgraph that are immutable.

Graph Node

Graph Node is an open source Rust implementation that event sources the Ethereum blockchain to deterministically update a data store that can be queried via the GraphQL endpoint.

Graph Tokens (GRT)

The native utility token of The Graph Network is called Graph Token (GRT). The token has been introduced by The Graph to ensure the proper functioning of the query market within the network.


GraphQL is a query language for APIs and provides a runtime for fulfilling those queries with existing data. As such, it is a complete and understandable description of the data in an API


Indexers are node operators that index and serve data through so called “subgraphs” (open APIs).

Indexing Reward Cut

The indexing reward cut shows the percentage of rewards an Indexer keeps for their services.

Parameters Cooldown

The value indicates how much time is left until an Indexer is allowed to make adjustments to their reward and query fee cuts.

Proofs of Indexing (POI)

In order to claim indexing rewards on a given subgraph, Indexers need to provide a recent Proof of Indexing (PoI). The PoI is computed from the signature of an Indexer, which is why it is necessary for Indexers to submit an individual PoI specific to them.

Query Fee Cut

The percentage shows you how much of the total query fees an Indexer keeps for providing their services.

Query Fees

In order to query data from a given subgraph, data consumers need to pay query fees.

Reward Cut

Cut that the indexer takes from the total rewards generated (both from his own stake and delegators)


Subgraphs are decentralized, open APIs telling The Graph node what data/events from a given blockchain to store.

Subgraph Availability Oracle

A Subgraph Availability Oracle determines whether or not a subgraph manifest is available. Should the subgraph manifest be not available, the subgraph is not eligible for the distribution of Indexer rewards.

Subgraph Developers

Subgraph developers define, which blockchain data is being stored in The Graph Node and the events that trigger this process.

Thawing Period

Delegations are subject to a 28 day thawing period once undelegated from an Indexer. During this time period, Delegators are not able to move tokens or earn delegation rewards with them.

The Graph

The Graph is an indexing protocol for organizing blockchain data and making it easily accessible with GraphQL.

The Graph Explorer

Interactive tool used for interacting with The Graph Network and exploring network data.

Unallocated Stake

Amount of GRT that is available to the indexer but hasn’t been allocated yet